About Tudor and Elizabethan architecture Comparative peace under the Tudor monarchs brought prosperity to England, Wales and Ireland. The wealth of great landowners – the Crown, the aristocracy and the Church – could be poured into building. It was a time of national confidence. Although ripples spread to these shores from the revival of classical architecture in Italy, the Tudor style was mainly home-grown. The Perpendicular style had already broken away from the European mainstream of late Gothic. The characteristic Tudor depressed arch can be seen in both ecclesiastical and secular buildings. Another useful dating feature is the Tudor Rose. So the Tudor badge was a double rose, often with a crown above, much used in decoration. Renaissance Interest in Renaissance features was largely confined to the educated and wealthy elite. In the s a small coterie headed by the Duke of Somerset went further and built with a symmetry and style heavily influenced by Renaissance ideals, for example at Longleat.
St. Philip Howard
Elizabethan Era Index Elizabethan superstitions also related to special chants, omens and names and numbers. Many traditional English customs are based on the mythical relationship to superstitions dating back to the Dark Ages and even further back to the Romans and their Gods and Goddesses. Elizabethan Superstitions The origins of many superstitions are based on trust in magic or chance. An irrational belief that an object, or action, or circumstance which are not logically related to a course of events can influence its outcome.
Ignorance and fear of the unknown combined with a false conception of causation and cessation resulted in many Elizabethan superstitions.
Tudor and Elizabethan architecture () Comparative peace under the Tudor monarchs brought prosperity to England, Wales and Ireland. The wealth of great landowners – the Crown, the aristocracy and the Church – could be poured into building. It was a time of national confidence.
Gatehouse of Oxburgh Hall in Oxborough Tudor style buildings have several features that separate them from Medieval and later 17th-century design. Nobility, upper classes, and clerical[ edit ] The Early Years: Henry Tudor And The Seeds of The Renaissance[ edit ] Though this period is better known for the luxuries and excesses of his son and granddaughter, it was actually under Henry VII that the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance began and it is often underestimated how much effort the founder of the Tudor dynasty invested in making huge changes to the way things were done before versus the way they were being done by the time he died.
Prior to , many wealthy and noble landowners lived in homes that were not necessarily comfortable but built to withstand sieges, though manor houses that were only lightly fortified, if at all, had been increasingly built. Castles and smaller manor houses often had moats, portcullises and crenelations designed for archers to stand guard and pick off approaching enemies.
However, with the arrival of gunpowder and cannons by the time of Henry VI , fortifications like castles became increasingly obsolete. The autumn of marked the ascension of Henry VII to the throne. Until Henry’s accession, England had been engaged in the Wars of the Roses that had left the royal coffers in deep trouble-Yorkists had raided the treasury just after the death of Edward IV.
Henry Tudor was hellbent on repairing the damage done by so many years of war, and that meant increasing financial security. It also meant recentralising power in London with the crown alone and away from interrelated nobles who had been squabbling over scraps of power since the reign of Richard II , evidenced by the crown beginning to be fought over by different branches of the descendants of Edward III at that time. From Henry’s point of view, there were taxes to collect, bills of attainder to hand out to the disloyal, Yorkists to marry off to Lancastrians, the majesty of the monarchy to repair and restore, and a metaphorical wrecking ball to be applied to the medieval ideal of the warrior king crouching in his fortress and his vassals in theirs.
During the reign of Henry VII, he made some savvy business investments in the alum trade and made vast improvements to the waterborne infrastructure of the country:
Researching Historic Buildings in the British Isles
The Elizabethan view of ideal beauty was a woman with light hair and a snow white complexion complimented with red cheeks and red lips. Queen Elizabeth achieved this picture of ideal beauty by using white make-up. This explains the odd white face make-up seen in many of her portraits. Queen Elizabeth had a natural red color hair. This red hair look was emulated by many of the nobility of the Elizabethan era, as was the fair hair ideal of an ideal woman. An Upper Class Elizabethan woman followed this fashion further and might even dye her hair yellow with a mixture of saffron, cumin seed, celandine and oil.
The Tudor architectural style is the final development of Medieval architecture in England, during the Tudor period (–) and even beyond, and also the tentative introduction of Renaissance architecture to England. It is generally not used to refer to the whole period of the Tudor dynasty (), but to the style used in buildings of some prestige in the period roughly between.
A beautiful blend of Jacobean and Georgian architecture, this National Trust-owned Grade-1 listed residence provides a fantastic range of facilities and services. Set in 90 acres of graceful gardens and parkland, this historic masterpiece is the perfect destination for those looking to relax and enjoy themselves in style. Hazel Plush, Telegraph Travel writer, says: Owned by the National Trust and stuffed with antique treasures, this is no ordinary hotel.
With breath-taking riverside views and a Michelin star restaurant to match this hotel is fantastic place stay if you are visiting the Yorkshire area. Fiona Duncan, Telegraph Travel Hotel expert says: The hotel, originally built in the 17th century as a coaching inn, retains much in the way of original character. The hotel also boasts four-poster beds, lovely views and a top- notch spa. An outstanding location for exploring the area; take a trip to the world famous RSC theatre or a cruise down the River Avon.
The AA-rosette awarded restaurant is the ultimate highlight, a combination of modern British and European cuisine using fine regional produce. The hotel boasts an hole championship golf course and top-notch spa facilities which will allow you to completely unwind.
Essex witchcraft indictments — the Hatfield Peveral witches Looking first at witchcraft being perceived as hereditary: This was probably a substantial under estimate. This constant change of religious policy must have had a long lasting effect on many of the inhabitants of the villages, including the community of Hatfield Peverel. In conclusion, it can be seen that the subject of witchcraft within England has raised many different questions and theories: My study has used evidence from the Assize trials and the pamphlets to study the surmise that witchcraft was a form of female power.
England is the largest and most populous constituent country of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and is located to the north-west of mainland Europe. Its inhabitants account for more than 82 percent of the total population of the United Kingdom. England is often mistakenly considered the same as the United Kingdom, or the same as the island of Great Britain, which.
A vivid fictional autobiography. Legacy by Susan Kay. Novel about Elizabeth I, England’s most passionate queen, and the three men who loved her. Queen of This Realm by Jean Plaidy. Novel in which Queen Elizabeth I tells her own life story. The Succession by George P. Garrett is a novel about Elizabeth and her successor, James I.
Sycamore wood, painted and gilt, dimensions x mm Britain early 17th century As the Tudor era continued into the Elizabethan and Stuart eras, trenchers with printed images were produced. By the birth of the 16th century, vast quantities of prints, both in relief and intaglio, were being produced to satisfy the wants and needs of the middle and also lower classes. A roundel may be a round stained glass window, a plaque for a wall interior or exterior , an illustration in a book, either illuminated or printed, and so on.
And in the hands of a private purchaser, being a print, they could also be used by more people, and in many and varied ways. Many of these were printed not only in England but Germany and the Netherlands. Some extant prints have had their papers trimmed, ready for use, such as this example:
Simon Forman was dead, but his name remained foremost in the minds of the citizens of London due to a posthumous scandal involving Simon and his former client, Lady Essex.
Its hotels and restaurants offer high-quality hospitality for all visitors and one has recently staked a claim to have more than types of champagne available. A gateway to the beauties of the Peak Distirct National Park, Bollington’s remnants of industrial history, the splendid Adelphi and Clarence Mills, stand on the banks of the Macclesfield Canal, reminders of the town’s heyday for the cotton industry.
Pre-dating the modern multi-level shops by several centuries, the Rows in Chester are the first floor shops, forming a continuous upper gallery along the main streets. With the distinctive black and white timber work and oriel windows, the 19th century restorations of much older buildings still fit in wonderfully and enable you to enjoy a new style of pedestrian shopping. The Cross, a reconstruction of the 15th century crucifix, is the historic centre of the City.
This was the centre of the Roman Camp layout, and is a wonderful place to watch the passing scene. Town Crier also the City’s Beadle in full regalia, make regular announcements in summer. The cathedral is built in the distinctive red Cheshire sandstone. Walk the walls – the two mile circuit is almost complete; although the present walls are mainly from the Middle Ages, they have links to the planning of the city that date back to Roman Deva, which began in AD At least part of the circuit should be on every visitor’s plan – and the Grosvenor Clock on the bridge that takes the walls over busy Eastgate, is reputed to be the most photographed clock in the UK after Big Ben.
The town was well known as an important manufacturer of leather, including purses and gloves during the 16th Century. A new era began in the town when a large silk mill opened in and employment was provided for about people.
Welcome to Stratford-upon-Avon, the birthplace of William Shakespeare.
He is a writer of great intellectual rapidity, perceptiveness, and poetic power. Other writers have had these qualities, but with Shakespeare the keenness of mind was applied not to abstruse or remote subjects but to human beings and their complete range of emotions and conflicts. Other writers have applied their keenness of mind in this way, but Shakespeare is astonishingly clever with words and images, so that his mental energy, when applied to intelligible human situations, finds full and memorable expression, convincing and imaginatively stimulating.
As if this were not enough, the art form into which his creative energies went was not remote and bookish but involved the vivid stage impersonation of human beings, commanding sympathy and inviting vicarious participation.
TOWNS & VILLAGES IN NORTH WEST ENGLAND. If you have any photographs of the towns/villages in question that you have taken I could include them on this page with an .
This paper is a result of a simple question: I began my research under the impression that I would quickly find an answer–after all, the dress of 16th century is a popular subject among costume historians. English dress in particular has been well-researched, and I expected to find what I needed in such landmark publications as Janet Arnold’s Patterns of Fashion: In addition, the century is recent enough archeologically that a substantial amount of material evidence still exists for first-hand perusal, and the rising popularity of portrait painting during the reign of King Henry the VIII and his successor Queen Elizabeth I provided a wealth of detailed artistic evidence to use in my search.
I soon discovered, however, that my task would be more difficult than I’d imagined. Most books and articles on later 16th century dress focus primarily on the costume of the wealthy, for the simple reason that virtually all material and iconographical evidence from the time period relates to the clothing of the rich merchant class, nobility and royalty of the time. Few cooks or servants could afford to have their likeness painted; pictures and paintings showing the dress of poorer folk are relatively rare in comparison to the plethora of upper-class portraits painted during the s.
The poor didn’t wear valuable clothing that would be preserved by future generations; neither did they receive the careful burial that has helped to preserve bodies and burial clothes until a 20th century historian came around to exhume and examine them. As a result, information on the dress of the laboring class was scanty, general and relatively vague in nature. What I did find was composed mostly of secondary sources in conjunction with a great deal of speculation to make up for the scarcity of available material or pictorial evidence.
I eventually turned towards the art of the time in an attempt to see and hopefully work out for myself what I wanted to know, and after searching through several books and museum catalogs, discovered that resources were not as scarce as I’d expected. Although virtually no portraits of lower-class women were to be found, the genre paintings popular in 16th century Flanders provided an unexpected bounty of material–images of market women, poultry vendors, kitchen maids, cooks and servants of the s and s, painted in delightfully realistic detail by artists such as Pieter Aertsen and Joachim Beuckelaer.
By using many of these paintings in conjunction with other 16th century written, pictorial and material resources, it is possible to create a reasonably accurate picture of what a kitchen maid or vegetable seller of the period would wear; and although I started out trying to research English lower-class clothing, these artistic sources changed the focus of my research to Flanders.
Researching Historic Buildings in the British Isles
Historic, Famous, Pet Friendly Many spooky incidents seen by both guests and porters The Old Bell Hotel, located directly next to the Malmesbury Abbey has foundations dating back to This historic hotel has a vast history with many stories about mysterious goings on. The east wing is built on part of the former abbey churchyard and it is believed that 8 sarcophagi are located under the bar. Could this be the reason for the spooky goings on at The Old Bell Hotel?
Bewitched ship from ‘Discovery of Witchcraft’, Reginald Scot, In recent times, witchcraft in early modern England has been much studied by many eminent historians and anthropologists such as Alan MacFarlane, Keith Thomas, Robin Briggs and James explanation for witchcraft that modern historians such as Thomas and MacFarlane have put forward is that the accusations occurred.
An Allegory of the Tudor Succession, c. The Victorian era and the early 20th century idealised the Elizabethan era. In popular culture, the image of those adventurous Elizabethan seafarers was embodied in the films of Errol Flynn. On balance, it can be said that Elizabeth provided the country with a long period of general if not total peace and generally increased prosperity due in large part to stealing from Spanish treasure ships, raiding settlements with low defenses, and selling African slaves.
Having inherited a virtually bankrupt state from previous reigns, her frugal policies restored fiscal responsibility. With taxes lower than other European countries of the period, the economy expanded; though the wealth was distributed with wild unevenness, there was clearly more wealth to go around at the end of Elizabeth’s reign than at the beginning.
That would be a prelude to the religious recovery of England for Catholicism. In , the Ridolfi plot was thwarted. In , the Throckmorton Plot was discovered, after Francis Throckmorton confessed his involvement in a plot to overthrow the Queen and restore the Catholic Church in England. Another major conspiracy was the Babington Plot — the event which most directly led to Mary’s execution, the discovery of which involved a double agent , Gilbert Gifford , acting under the direction of Francis Walsingham , the Queen’s highly effective spy master.
The Essex Rebellion of has a dramatic element, as just before the uprising, supporters of the Earl of Essex, among them Charles and Joscelyn Percy younger brothers of the Earl of Northumberland , paid for a performance of Richard II at the Globe Theatre , apparently with the goal of stirring public ill will towards the monarchy.
It was discovered in time with eight conspirators executed, including Guy Fawkes , who became the iconic evil traitor in English lore. Elizabeth made naval strength a high priority. The Navy yards were leaders in technical innovation, and the captains devised new tactics.